Fly ash is a by-product produced while burning finely ground coal in a boiler to produce electricity. It is removed from the plant exhaust gases primarily by electrostatic precipitators or baghouses and secondarily by scrubber systems. Physically, fly ash is a very fine, powdery material, composed mostly of silica. Nearly all particles are spherical in shape. Fly ash is a pozzolan, a siliceous material which in the presence of water will react with calcium hydroxide at ordinary temperatures to produce cementitious compounds. SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3 and occasionally CaO are the main chemical components present in fly ashes.
Fly ash significantly improves concrete performance in different ways and also provides many benefits in cement and non-cement applications. Fly Ash colour can vary from grey and dark grey, yellowish tan and light to brownish.